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Melatonin And Lipid Metabolism
Early experiments showed that treatment with melatonin can improve dyslipidemia . In patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, treatment with melatonin for 14 months significantly reduced levels of triglycerides and LDL cholesterol compared with controls treated with Essentiale . Treatment with melatonin for 2weeks significantly reduced free fatty acids compared with placebo in cigarette smokers . A study on aluminum-induced toxicity in a rat model found that melatonin protected against toxic dyslipidemia by alleviating the aluminum induced increase in total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides, oxidized LDL and apolipoprotein B100 . In unpublished results, we have demonstrated that melatonin administration can improve lipid metabolism and reduce weight. Melatonin treatment reduced body weight, body fat, and waist circumference in obese patients with acanthosis nigricans. We also found that melatonin could decrease LDL and body weight in high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease mice. Dyslipidemia is an important risk factor of cardiovascular diseases , and melatonin’s beneficial effects on lipid metabolism may reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseases.
The Bottom Line On Melatonin And Heart Disease
The bottom line is that melatonin may play an instrumental role in helping to ward off cardiovascular disease. Because melatonin has been proven to be extremely safe, it is worth exploring how this supplement may be able to boost your overall health while also regulating your sleep cycle. With so many health benefits credited to melatonin, it is worth your time to do more research to understand the various ways that you can improve your health and well-being by supporting healthy melatonin levels in your body.
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How Melatonin Beneficial For Your Heart Health
Melatonin is well known for its role as the sleep hormone in making it easier to fall asleep and to help treat jet lag.
But what if we told you that melatonin benefits has shown cardioprotective effects on the heart?
In this article, well be discussing how melatonin supplementation may have protective effects on various cardiovascular conditions and your overall heart health.
Two Studies: Cbd Reduces Heart Inflammation
In this 2013 review of several studies , CBD was found to positively influence white blood cell survival and migration related to heart disease. The researchers concluded that A common theme throughout these studies is the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect of CBD. In the heart, in vivo CBD treatment protects against ischaemia-reperfusion damage and against cardiomyopathy associated with diabetes.
The second 2016 study published in the Journal of Molecular Medicine CBD reduced markers of inflammation in individuals with autoimmune myocarditis, a condition which causes inflammation of the heart.
So, while its far too early to determine how exactly CBD influences cardiovascular function, there is promising evidence that CBDs known anti-inflammatory properties apply to the heart as well, and that CBD can potentially reduce heart-related inflammation.
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Special Precautions & Warnings
Pregnancy and breast-feedingPOSSIBLY UNSAFE
Not enough is known about the safety of using melatonin when breast-feeding. It is best not to use it.
Children: Melatonin is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth as a single dose. It is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth or injected into the body in multiple doses in the short-term. Because of its effects on other hormones, melatonin might interfere with development during adolescence.
Bleeding disorders: Melatonin might make bleeding worse in people with bleeding disorders.
Depression: Melatonin can make symptoms of depression worse.
Diabetes: Melatonin might increase blood sugar in people with diabetes. Monitor your blood sugar carefully, if you have diabetes and take melatonin.
High blood pressure: Melatonin can raise blood pressure in people who are taking certain medications to control blood pressure. Avoid using it.
Seizure disorders: Using melatonin might increase the risk of having a seizure.
Transplant recipients: Melatonin can increase immune function and might interfere with immunosuppressive therapy used by people receiving transplants.
Melatonin And Cardiac Arrhythmia
Cardiac arrhythmias may lead to many complications including death . VT and ventricular fibrillation commonly occur after cardiac IR injury, which may be fatal if untreated. Appropriate antiarrhythmic agents may prevent these outcomes. Oxidative stress occurring during IR injury may explain the onset of cardiac rhythm abnormalities. The Metabolic sink hypothesis is as follows: superoxide anions pass through the mitochondrial inner membrane which induces a drop in the m and a reduction in cellular ATP levels. In response to these effects the sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive potassium current is increased. As voltage-gated potassium channels open to repolarize the membrane, the potassium conductance increases dramatically to bring the membrane potential closer to the equilibrium potential for potassium. ROS may also inhibit the sodium current to cause rhythm abnormalities . Melatonin ameliorates the shortened action potential, and upregulates connexin 43 during ischemia , which may explain its antiarrhythmic activity, along with its antioxidant effects . However, further resaerch is needed to confirm the relationship between melatonin, oxidative stress and cardiac rhythm abnormalities.
Table 6 lists some studies on the effects of melatonin on cardiac arrhythmias.
Table 6. Melatonin and cardiac arrhythmia.
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Melatonin Protective Effects Against Drug
Doxorubicin is a commonly used anticancer chemotherapeutic drug in the class of anthracyclines, which has been extensively used in the management of both hematologic and solid tumors . However, the therapeutic application of Dox has been limited, because it causes cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. A study showed that administration of trastuzumab plus anthracyclines in patients led to increased left ventricular afterload and preload, whereas it resulted in reduced strain, heart rate and ejection fraction. In addition, recovery from these effects was not observed even after a 2-year-follow up . Dox produces cardiac toxicity via multiple pathways, including a large increase in ROS proudction . Myocytes have abundant mitochondria which are needed for production of sufficient ATP for heart contraction, and maintaining cell viability in the myocardium . Dox accumulates in the mitochondria, where it damages the mitochondrial membrane, reducing the MMP and producing ROS, leading to the death of cardiomyocytes . In addition, studies have found that Dox can trigger apoptosis by decreasing the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2, and inceasing pro-apoptotic Bax .
Table 1 lists some studies on the effects of melatonin on drug-induced cardiotoxicity and heart damage.
Table 1. Effects of melatonin on drug-induced cardiotoxicity and protection against heart damage.
Current Challenges Limitations And New Perspectives For The Use Of Melatonin In Cvds
The dietary supplementation of melatonin appears as an effective option to compensate the physiological decline in the production of pineal gland melatonin with ageing however, the role of dietary melatonin in health and disease is still not well established . The strong limitation for the studies of dietary melatonin is the lack of standardized methods to determine melatonin concentration in foods with adequate sample treatment to obtain accurate results, thus making some of its proposed benefits hard to swallow . In addition, most of the studies on dietary melatonin measure melatonin content in food, but very few evaluate the bioavailability of melatonin after melatonin-rich food consumption. It is well established that the bioavailability of melatonin after oral and intravenous melatonin administration in human is very low with a maximal half-life of 10â60 min . Although other factors may also influence the bioavailability of melatonin which is mostly metabolized by the enzymatic catabolism in the liver . As shown in the Figure 4, melatonin is principally metabolized in the liver by cytochrome P-450 isoforms in 6-hydroxylation to yield 6-hydroxymelatonin which is thereafter conjugated with sulfates to 6-sulfatoxymelatonin and eliminated in urine . Melatonin may also be transformed to a less extend by CYP2C19 and CYP1A2 mediated O-demethylation in N-acetylserotonin or by deacetylation to 5-methoxytryptamine which can be reconverted to melatonin .
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How To Take It
There is currently no recommended dose for melatonin supplements. Different people will have different responses to its effects. Lower doses appear to work better in people who are especially sensitive. Higher doses may cause anxiety and irritability.
The best approach for any condition is to begin with very low doses of melatonin. Keep the dose close to the amount that our bodies normally produce . You should only use the lowest amount possible to achieve the desired effect. Your doctor can help you determine the most appropriate dose for your situation, including how to increase the amount, if needed.
- Always ask your child’s doctor before giving melatonin to a child. In fact, doses between 1 to 5 mg may cause seizures in this age group.
- You should work with your doctor to find the safest and most effective dose for you. The right dose for you should produce restful sleep with no daytime irritability or fatigue.
- Jet lag: 0.5 to 5 mg of melatonin 1 hour prior to bedtime at final destination has been used in several studies. Another approach that has been used is 1 to 5 mg 1 hour before bedtime for 2 days prior to departure and for 2 to 3 days upon arrival at final destination.
Who Can Take Melatonin
The following issues can benefit from taking melatonin supplements:
- Jetlag: Travelling across multiple time zones gives you jetlag and disturbs your sleep pattern.
- Shift work sleep disorder: Shift work disorder can be caused by working night shifts, rotating shifts, or even an early morning shift. This leads to sleep deprivation and the inability to fall asleep when you need to.
- Insomnia: Trouble falling asleep or staying asleep
- Delayed sleep phase disorder : You cannot fall asleep fast, so you end up staying awake beyond midnight and find it difficult waking up early in the morning when you need to.
Doctors have also recommended melatonin supplements for the following conditions:
- Sleep disorders and certain developmental and behavioral disorders in children
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Melatonin As A Protective Agent Against Septic Cardiomyopathy
Zhang et al. investigated the dual protective effects of melatonin on both mitochondria and ER, focusing on the BAP31 and ERK pathways. Their study investigated how BAP31 could affect the development of septic cardiomyopathy, and clarified the effect of melatonin on the ERK pathway, ER stress, and mitochondrial function . An in vivo septic cardiomyopathy model was created using lipopolysaccharide . Western blotting, quantitative-PCR and immunofluorescence were used to investigate the pathways. Due to the overwhelming inflammatory response and loss of cardiomyocytes, heart function was significantly disturbed after exposure to LPS. Melatonin treatment might increase cardiomyocyte survival by enhancing mitochondrial activity and decreasing ER stress. LPS suppressed BAP31 transcription, but melatonin restored BAP31 levels, which may be attributed to the MAPK-ERK axis. Inhibition of ERK and BAP31 blocked these effects. Overall, their study showed that melatonin affected the ERK-BAP31 axis to regulate ER-mitochondrial interactions during sepsis to prevent septic cardiomyopathy .
Table 7 lists some studies on the effects of melatonin on septic cardiomyopathy.
Table 7. Effects of melatonin on septic cardiomyopathy.
Current Challenges And Perspectives In The Use Of Melatonin In Heart Failure
Even though the use of animals has provided more insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms of HF and the development of new therapies, the complex etiology of HF still makes it challenging to study HF using animal models . Melatonin was suggested as a preventive and curative therapy against various forms of the cardiac disease . However, in the context of HF, there are a few important things to consider. A reciprocal relationship exists between the anatomic changes of the myocardium and the initial pathological stimulus . This means that treatment with melatonin may directly modulate the primary pathological stimulus or can be released into circulation where it affects the remodeled myocardium. In a rat model of pulmonary hypertensive rats, melatonin confers cardioprotection and stunts non-ischemic HF . Even in this model, the protective effects of melatonin may either be due to its direct effect on the remodeled myocardium or the primary pathological stimulus it is likely that melatonin simultaneously induces beneficial effects against the primary pathological stimulus and on the remodeled myocardium. This is especially relevant in studies where melatonin treatment is administered via drinking water or oral pills formations. In such models, melatonin is released into systemic circulation and may thereby have beneficial effects on the remodeled myocardium and the initial pathological stimulus .
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If You Are Looking For Ways To Increase Your Blood Levels Of Melatonin For Improved Heart Health Then You Should Consider A Melatonin Supplement
More specifically, you may want to do some research on Liposomal Melatonin Technology. Liposomal Melatonin Technology uses micro sized fluid filled liposomes to protect and deliver nutrients directly into the cells and tissues of the body.
These liposomes are very similar to human cells, which makes it easier for them to be transported within the body. As a result, nutrient absorption is greatly increased, and there is less intestinal discomfort than with using standard oral supplements.
Clearly, liposomal melatonin deserves serious consideration for its potential cardioprotective properties.
Evidence Less Certain In People
In humans, the evidence is less clear. A large trial where melatonin was injected into patients hearts after a heart attack showed no beneficial effects. A later analysis of the same data suggested that melatonin reduced the size of damage caused to the heart by being starved of oxygen during a heart attack. And a similar clinical trial suggested no beneficial effects of giving melatonin to people who had suffered a heart attack. So the evidence is contradictory and no clear picture of melatonins role in helping to prevent damage to the heart during a heart attack has emerged so far.
It has been suggested that giving melatonin orally after a heart attack, rather than directly to the heart, could explain the contradictory findings in clinical trials.
Trials looking at the effect of melatonin on heart attack are still in the relatively early stages, and it is clear further studies are needed to look at how and when melatonin could be administered after a heart attack.
However, it is clear that melatonin levels , and this may lead to an increased risk of heart disease.
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Melatonin And Valvular Heart Disease
It has been demonstrated that melatonin reduces flow shear stress-induced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells injury by acting on melatonin receptors and the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase/acetyl-CoA carboxylase signaling pathway . In this study, melatonin reduced the expression of caspase 3, p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis, and BAX, while inducing the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor, TGF, vascular endothelial growth factor, , and platelet-derived growth factor . These findings suggest that targeting melatonin relating signaling in tissue-engineered heart valves may be an effective strategy in treating valvular heart disease.
Link Between Melatonin And Heart Disease
Because of its far-reaching effects, everyone would be wise to consider what they can do to help to prevent the onset of CVD. The promising news is that because of its prevalence, there has been an astounding amount of research that has gone into understanding CVD and how to mitigate its effects.
One of the most encouraging pieces of research surrounds the link between melatonin and heart disease. Melatonin is a hormone naturally produced by the body. However, it is also possible to introduce melatonin into the body in supplement form. Recent studies continue to support the idea that melatonin can be used both as a preventative measure and as an adjunct treatment for CVD.
The heart is vulnerable to damage from chemicals in the environment or other diseases, such as diabetes. However, melatonin has been shown to be able to protect the heart against some of these strikes, particularly when it comes to damage that occurs at the mitochondrial level throughout the body.
In addition, melatonin has been shown to be helpful in regulating blood pressure. It is normal for an individuals blood pressure to fluctuate throughout a 24-hour day-night cycle. Scientists have discovered that people who see a greater dip in blood pressure overnight tend to have a lower death rate attributed to cardiovascular issues. The use of melatonin supplements can encourage the nocturnal dip in blood pressure. In turn, this regulation of blood pressure promotes good heart health.
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