Effects Of Estradiol On Vascular Tone
Functional estrogen receptors of the and subtypes are expressed in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells , and it is well established that estradiol can cause vasodilation by both ER-dependent and ER-independent mechanisms. Acute administration of estradiol in vitro and in vivo induces rapid dilation of coronary arteries of cholesterol-fed ovariectomized animals . Exogenous estradiol also dilates coronary and brachial arteries in postmenopausal women and men . Long-term treatment with estradiol abrogates the vasoconstrictor effects of U46619 , phenylepinephrine, 5-HT, calcium, potassium and acetylcholine on vascular tissues such as aortic rings and coronary arteries . Compared with premenopausal women, vasodilator effects of estradiol are decreased in postmenopausal women and are normalized by estrogen replacement therapy . The vasodilator effect of estradiol replacement therapy is diminished by co-administration of synthetic progestins such as medroxyprogesterone and cyproterone acetate .
In summary, estradiol is a vasodilator that decreases vascular resistance by multiple mechanisms. Increased production of NO plays a prominent role, and increased synthesis of other endogenous vasodilators, decreased synthesis of endogenous vasoconstrictors and activation of K+ channels also contribute to the vasodilatory actions of estradiol.
What Should I Discuss With My Healthcare Provider Before Taking Testosterone
You should not use testosterone if you are allergic to it, or if you have:
- male breast cancer
- prostate cancer or
- low testosterone due to getting older.
Although this medicine is for use only in men, testosterone can harm an unborn baby and should not be used by a pregnant woman.
Tell your doctor if you have ever had:
- heart problems
- depression, anxiety, a mood disorder, suicidal thoughts or actions or
- increased hematocrit or hemoglobin levels on a blood test.
Using testosterone may increase your risk of developing prostate cancer. Ask your doctor about this risk.
Testosterone can lower your sperm count, which may affect fertility .
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Convenient, affordable, and customized health care is simple when you choose our team at Low T Center. We work hard to make taking care of your health as simple as possible so you can get back to your busy lifestyle. Our providers can help with diagnosis, treatment, and ongoing health management to help you live your best life. Whether youre suffering from low testosterone, sleep apnea, or another health condition, we have solutions for you. Make an appointment now to discover how were reinventing health care for men.
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Fewer Deaths Due To Mace Seen Over 10 Years Versus Controls
This article is a collaboration between MedPage Today and:
BOSTON â Men with hypogonadism on long-term testosterone therapy had improved cardiovascular health, according to researchers here.
According to the 10-year outcomes of hypogonadal men, fewer men experienced death from a major adverse cardiovascular events while on testosterone undecanoate treatment compared with hypogonadal men who werenât on testosterone treatment , reported Farid Saad, PhD, of Bayer Pharma AG in Berlin, and colleagues, in a presentation at the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists annual meeting.
- Note that this study was published as an abstract and presented at a conference. These data and conclusions should be considered to be preliminary until published in a peer-reviewed journal.
Other cardiovascular-related factors also improved among men on long-term testosterone treatment versus who werenât :
- Systolic blood pressure : 154.1 to 131.1 mmHg for testosterone group vs 146.4 to 149.4 mmHg for controls
- Diastolic BP: 91.6 to 77.6 mmHg vs 83.9 to 87.5 mmHg
- Heart rate: 77.8 to 76.1 bpm vs 76.7 to 78 mmHg
- Pulse pressure: 62.5 to 53.5 mmHg vs unchanged at 62.5 mmHg
- Rate pressure product: 11999 to 9967 mmHg*bpm vs 11230 to 11684 mmHg*bpm
âThese findings were independent of anti-hypertensive medication that patients had also been prescribed by their family physicians,â Saad told MedPage Today.
One Of The Main Problems With High Blood Pressure Is That It Damages The Artery System
This can lead to limited blood flow starving many parts of the body of oxygen.
High blood pressure is also strongly associated with dementia, cognitive impairment, and erectile dysfunction.
So for the sake of your health and your sex life, keep a close eye on your testosterone levels.
You should always consult a healthcare professional about treating and diagnosing health problems.
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Testosterone And Blood Pressure: Is There A Link
- Mantality Health
- · March 13, 2020
Get this: men with lower levels of testosterone have seen an improvement in their blood pressure levels after TRT therapy.
So, what is the link between testosterone and blood pressure?
Were glad that you asked. At this time, studying the connection between the two is still an intricate subject. But when it comes to testosterone and high blood pressure, here is everything that you need to know!
Uterine Weight Sex Steroid Hormone Levels And Arterial Blood Pressure
Ovariectomy reduced significantly uterine weight and plasma estrogen level when compared to the SHAM female rats and were restored by CEE and CEE+T treatments. Testosterone level was increased significantly in the CEE+T group compared to all groups . The systolic and diastolic arterial pressures of female SHR were neither modified by ovariectomy nor by CEE treatment. However, the association of testosterone with CEE markedly increased systolic arterial pressure compared to the SHAM, OVX, and CEE groups and increased diastolic arterial pressure compared to the SHAM and OVX groups .
TABLE 1. Uterine weight and sex steroid hormone levels in SHAM, ovariectomized , OVX treated with conjugated equine estrogens and OVX treated with CEE plus testosterone female spontaneously hypertensive rats.
FIGURE 1. Systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure were obtained from SHAM, ovariectomized , OVX treated with conjugated equine estrogens and OVX treated with CEE plus testosterone female spontaneously hypertensive rats. Results represent the mean ± SEM from 6 to 8 animals/group. One-way ANOVA: P< 0.05.
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Testosterone And Erectile Dysfunction
Erectile dysfunction becomes more common as men age. Testosterone levels decline with age. Many men with ED blame their sagging performance on sagging hormone levels. But are they correct?
To find out, the Massachusetts Male Aging Study surveyed 625 randomly selected men between the ages of 40 and 70. Forty-one percent of the men had moderate to severe erectile dysfunction, but there was no link between ED and levels of total testosterone, bioavailable testosterone, and sex hormonebinding proteins.
Doctors in Australia approached the question from the other direction, by measuring testosterone levels in 1,455 men who were referred for evaluation of ED. Fewer than 6% of the men had low testosterone levels.
ED is much, much more likely to result from cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and medication side effects than from testosterone deficiency.
Benefits Of Testosterone Therapy For Blood Pressure
Testosterone is important for your body and your blood pressure. One of the functions of testosterone is its conversion into estrogen by the enzyme aromatase. Although too much estrogen conversion is not good for the body, the right amount will help protect the arteries.
When we look at the results of testosterone replacement and high blood pressure readings in adults, we often find that not only do BP levels decline, but the other issues associated with metabolic syndrome also improve. Weight gain is a significant problem because people who are heavier than normal often have higher blood pressure levels. Additionally, their LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels are also high.
After starting testosterone therapy, and high blood pressure levels are checked, most people start to see a difference around the end of the third month of treatment.
You should discuss any concerns about blood pressure, low testosterone, and hormone levels in general with a qualified and experienced hormone replacement therapy specialist. The experts at Kingsberg Medical offer free, confidential consultations to men and women throughout the US. Local diagnostic testing laboratories and affordable treatment options are available.
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Risks Of Prescription Testosterone Therapy
Before we close our article, we would like to discuss the risks of prescription testosterone therapy in men. By that, we are referring to alternative treatment forms like injections, skin patches, and gels. No matter which one you choose, each has its own side effects.
For example, testosterone patches can make your skin itch. Additionally, muscular injections can create mood swings in males. And if you choose the testosterone gel, our word of advice is to avoid sharing it with others.
Prescription forms of testosterone therapy can result in increased urination and fluid retention, not to mention bigger acne problems.
It can also lead to breast enlargement and reproductive health issues in males. As a matter of fact, it can even worsen the impact of sleep apnea in elderly adults.
Are you thinking about trying out testosterone replacement therapy?
First of all, congratulations. This is a great solution if you are a man who constantly suffers from low levels of testosterone. Make sure that your doctor gives you a blood test to see if your testosterone levels are impacting your general health.
That doesnt mean that you can skip out on regular exercise and a healthy diet. Rather, its best to combine your testosterone replacement therapy with both for optimal results. Dont forget to schedule follow-up monitoring appointments either.
Measurement Of Arterial Stiffness
Arterial properties were assessed according to recommended procedures . The determinations were made between 0800 and 1000h at the supine position. During the examination subjects stayed with extended legs and did not talk or sleep. Room temperature was between 21 and 23°C. All participants abstained from caffeinated beverages on the day on which the measurements were performed. Brachial blood pressure was obtained after a resting period of 15min, using an automated BP monitor with the radial artery kept at the heart level during the measurement. Five measurements were averaged, enabling a determination of systolic BP , diastolic BP , mean BP, and heart rate. All measurements were performed by a single investigator . Intra-observer reliability was measured by the Pearson correlation coefficient and high reliability was found for each of four parameters respectively) with correlation coefficients 0.92.
Noninvasive assessment of arterial properties was initiated following the measurement of BP, with the following devices:
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Low Testosterone Is Associated With Metabolic Syndrome
Its also important to note that low testosterone is linked with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a collection of different health conditions, including high blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess body fat , and high cholesterol. This can increase the risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. This may also explain the link between low T and high blood pressure. Theres no single cause for metabolic syndrome, but its typically linked to excess weight, which we mentioned testosterone deficiency can also cause as a symptom. However, many studies have found men with low T who take TRT are able to lose more weight and may even be able to reverse their metabolic syndrome.
A Cardiovascular Concern With Hormone Therapy
In people assigned male at birth with low testosterone, testosterone therapy has improved LDL cholesterol, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, and exercise performance. However, a clinical trial of testosterone therapy conducted in older assigned males with a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease was halted in 2009 because of a high rate of heart attacks and strokes.
Another study published in 2013 retrospectively studied veterans assigned male at birth with low testosterone who either received or did not receive testosterone therapy. That study found the hormones use was associated with greater risk of all-cause mortality, heart attack, and stroke.
Further, there are questions about the association between testosterone therapy and cardiovascular events like heart attack. While some studies have highlighted the connections between this therapy and chances of developing heart problems, others note that evidence is as yet scant and warrants more research. However, in studies of people assigned male at birth who used anabolic steroids, researchers found an increase in heart disease, leading them to question whether testosterone therapy also raises the risk.
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Does Testosterone Therapy Increase The Risk Of Heart Disease In Men
In recent years, advertising campaigns for testosterone replacement therapy have sparked a rapid rise in the use of testosterone gels, patches, pellets, and injections by men of all ages. Despite its popularity, testosterone therapy is not without risk. Research suggests that men who use testosterone may be at increased risk of heart disease. Read on to learn about the dangers of testosterone replacement therapy and why dietary and lifestyle changes are a much healthier approach for restoring optimal levels of this crucial hormone.
Why Testosterone Levels Drop
Testosterone is present in all bodies regardless of sex assigned at birth. The hormone is only socially associated with masculinity and virility. The loss of it may be disturbing to some people assigned male at birth as a result of this socialization, but it is a natural process. The hormone peaks in people assigned male at birth when they are in their twenties, and then a natural decline begins to occur. This decline is slow and steady, unlike the suddenness of menopause that people assigned female at birth experience.
Although testosterone declines with age, advancing age is not the only reason for levels to drop. Greater amounts of body fat are associated with lower testosterone, and environmental factors such as exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals found in plastics, opiods, some pesticide residues, and pollutants found in fish and other animal foods also may contribute.
There is a likely cycle in which high body fat promotes lower testosterone, which promotes more body fat, leading to diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In addition, cholesterol-lowering statin drugs may exacerbate this. However, healthier lifestyle habits such as not smoking, regular physical activity, lower meat and salt intake, and maintaining a healthy weight, are associated with higher testosterone levels in older people assigned male at birth.
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Effects Of Low Testosterone On Blood Pressure
Low testosterone risk is 2.4 times higher for men who are obese and 2.1 times greater for those with diabetes. Obesity and diabetes are both related to a condition called metabolic syndrome.
Metabolic syndrome is a serious health concern that is often associated with low testosterone levels. Adults dealing with metabolic syndrome have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. One of the reasons for examining the connection between testosterone treatment and high blood pressure reversal is that it can also reduce the risks associated with metabolic syndrome, which includes:
- High blood pressure
- Abdominal weight gain
- High glucose levels
The biggest concerns over testosterone replacement therapy and high blood pressure problems occur when testosterone levels are too high. This is the reverse of what occurs with Low T. too much testosterone, as when used illegally by athletes or bodybuilders, can also lead to an increase in testosterone levels, which is likely where initial concerns about testosterone therapy and blood pressure came from.
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Ovariectomy Estrogen And Testosterone Treatment
Rats were ovariectomized or SHAM-operated at 12 weeks of age under with a mixture of ketamine and xylazine . Thirty days after ovariectomy, a group of OVX rats was treated during 15 days with a solution of conjugated equine estrogens by gavage as previously described . Another OVX group received CEE associated with testosterone cypionate as reported . At the end of the treatment period, rats were anesthetized , blood samples were collected from the abdominal aorta and then centrifuged to separate the serum. Serum levels of estrogen and testosterone were determined by a commercial ELISA kit .
Does Testosterone Replacement Therapy Increase Blood Pressure
Does testosterone replacement therapy increase blood pressure? In this article, we will look at some of the research behind blood pressure and testosterone replacement therapy. I also will add some of my clinical experience on using testosterone replacement therapy and its effect on blood pressure.
If you are interested in understanding how testosterone replacement therapy affects blood pressure, keep reading.
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Cyp4a1 And Cyp4f3 Protein And Mrna Expression
Ovariectomy increases protein expression of CYP4A1 in aorta of SHR. CEE+T, but not CEE alone, decreases CYP4A1 expression compared to OVX to the similar level of the SHAM group . On the other hand, in aorta of OVX the CYP4F3 protein expression level were similar to the ones observed in SHAM. CYP4F3 expression was augmented by CEE treatment in comparison to OVX group, and further increased by CEE+T . mRNA levels of CYP4A1 follow the same pattern of protein expression in SHR aortas . However, mRNA levels of CYP4F3 in the aorta of OVX are marked decreased compared to the levels observed in SHAM. The CEE treatment augmented the CYP4F3 in OVX group, while the association of testosterone to CEE treatment decreased CYP4F3 mRNA levels above the levels observed in OVX .
FIGURE 4. Immunoblot representative images and densitometric analyses of protein expression of CYP4A1 and CYP4F3 , normalized by -actin, in aorta of SHAM, ovariectomized , OVX treated with conjugated equine estrogens and OVX treated with CEE plus testosterone female spontaneously hypertensive rats. Results were expressed as percentage of SHAM and represent the mean ± SEM from 6 to 7 independent experiments. One-way ANOVA: P< 0.05.