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Hormonal Therapy For Prostate Cancer

Key Factors Associated With Chemotherapy Use: Chemotherapy Vs Adt Alone

Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer

Patients receiving chemotherapy were significantly younger than patients receiving ADT alone . Examining the key clinical reasons for treatment choice revealed that physicians prescribed chemotherapy vs ADT alone to significantly higher proportions of patients who were younger: , who had good performance status , whose top priority was OS , whose top priority was maximal PFS , for whom a rapid onset of action was required , who had high disease burden , or who had visceral metastases . All key clinical reasons for treatment choice for chemotherapy vs ADT alone are presented in Fig. .

Outlook For Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer

Many men with locally advanced prostate cancer have treatment that aims to get rid of their cancer. For some men, this treatment can be very successful and they may live for many years without their cancer coming back or causing them any problems. For others, treatment may be less successful and the cancer may come back. If this happens, you might need further treatment. Read more about the risk of your cancer coming back.

Some men with locally advanced prostate cancer will have treatment that aims to help keep their cancer under control rather than get rid of it completely. For example, if you have hormone therapy on its own, it can help to keep the cancer under control, usually for several years. And there are other treatments available if your hormone therapy stops working.

Prostate Cancer Risk Groups

Prostate cancer can be categorised into one of 5 risk groups in the Cambridge Prognostic Group .

Doctors will look at the Grade Group , prostate specific antigen level and tumour stage to decide which CPG group the prostate cancer is.

The risk group of the cancer will help determine which types of treatments will be necessary.

If prostate cancer is diagnosed at an early stage, the chances of survival are generally good.

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Advancements In The Treatment Of Metastatic Hormone

  • Department of Urology, Gansu Provincial Hospital, Lanzhou, China

In the last decade, there have been substantial improvements in the outcome of the management of metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer following the development of several novel agents as well as by combining several therapeutic strategies. Although the overall survival of mHSPC is shown to improve with intense androgen deprivation therapy , combined with docetaxel, as well as other novel hormonal therapy agents, or alongside local intervention to the primary neoplasm. Notably, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonists are known to cause fewer cardiovascular side effects compared with LHRH agonists. Thus, in this mini review, we explore the different approaches in the management of mHSPC, with the aim that we may provide useful information for both basic scientists and clinicians when managing relevant clinical situations.

Nutrition And Dietary Supplements

Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer

Some studies have suggested that eating a healthy diet that is rich in vegetables and lower in animal fats might be helpful, but more research is needed to be sure. However, we do know that a healthy diet can have positive effects on your overall health, with benefits that extend beyond your risk of prostate or other cancers.

So far, no dietary supplements have been shown to clearly help lower the risk of prostate cancer progressing or coming back. In fact, some research has suggested that some supplements, such as selenium, might even be harmful. This doesnt mean that no supplements will help, but its important to know that none have been proven to do so.

Dietary supplements are not regulated like medicines in the United States they do not have to be proven effective before being sold, although there are limits on what theyre allowed to claim they can do. If you are thinking about taking any type of nutritional supplement, talk to your health care team. They can help you decide which ones you can use safely while avoiding those that could be harmful.

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Results Of Treating Prostate Cancer With Radiation Therapy

American Cancer Society. Radiation therapy for prostate cancer. January 2013.

Radiation therapy is best used as an early treatment for a lower-grade cancer that is confined within the prostate gland. The survival rates are similar to the results of radical prostatectomy. Radiation therapy treatments can also be used along with hormone therapy as a first step in treating prostate cancer that has spread outside of the prostate gland to nearby tissues. External beam radiation therapy can be focused on the prostate gland therefore, reducing the radiation exposure to the surrounding healthy tissues. This may increase survival rates over other forms of prostate cancer treatments.

National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health. September 2012

Clinical trials show that external-beam radiation therapy does not seem to improve the survival rate of prostate cancer, but it does help to stop the progression of the disease. One such trial showed an increased progression-free survival at 4 years for patients with a 15% estimated risk of lymph node involvement who received whole-pelvic radiation therapy as compared with prostate-only radiation therapy With this in mind, radiation therapy treatments should be delayed 4 to 6 weeks after a TURP procedure in order to reduce incidence of stricture.

Stevens, G Firth, I. Audit in radiation therapy: long-term survival and cost of treatment. National Institute of Health. Feb. 1997

What Types Of Hormone Therapy Are Used For Prostate Cancer

Hormone therapy for prostate cancer can block the production or use of androgens . Currently available treatments can do so in several ways:

  • reducing androgen production by the testicles
  • blocking the action of androgens throughout the body
  • block androgen production throughout the body

Androgen production in men. Drawing shows that testosterone production is regulated by luteinizing hormone and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone . The hypothalamus releases LHRH, which stimulates the release of LH from the pituitary gland. LH acts on specific cells in the testes to produce the majority of testosterone in the body. Most of the remaining androgens are produced by the adrenal glands. Androgens are taken up by prostate cells, where they either bind to the androgen receptor directly or are converted to dihydrotestosterone , which has a greater binding affinity for the androgen receptor than testosterone.

Treatments that reduce androgen production by the testicles are the most commonly used hormone therapies for prostate cancer and the first type of hormone therapy that most men with prostate cancer receive. This form of hormone therapy includes:

Treatments that block the action of androgens in the body are typically used when ADT stops working. Such treatments include:

Treatments that block the production of androgens throughout the body include:

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Additional Treatment After Surgery

Additional treatment can come with one of two approaches: treatment given as adjuvant therapy , or as salvage therapy . In the modern era, most additional treatment is given as salvage therapy because firstly this spares unnecessary treatment for men who would never experience recurrence, and secondly because the success rates of the two approaches appear to be the same.

Regardless of whether an adjuvant or salvage therapy approach is taken, the main treatment options following biochemical recurrence are:

  • Radiotherapy this is the commonest approach. Because scans dont show metastatic deposits until the PSA is more than 0.5 ng/ml and because radiotherapy is more effective when given before this level is reached, the radiotherapy energy is delivered to the prostate bed. This is because we know that this is the commonest site of recurrence in most men, and that 80% of men treated in this way will be cured.
  • Active surveillance this is appropriate for a very slowly-rising PSA in an elderly patient who has no symptoms.
  • Hormonal therapy in many ways this is the least appealing option as it causes symptoms but does not cure anyone, although it does control the recurrence and lower the PSA.

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Differences Among Risk Groups

What is the Best Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer?

Men with PCa have been classified into low-, intermediate- and high-risk Groups for tumor recurrence and disease specific mortality, based on PSA level, clinical or pathological staging and GS. High-risk patients have PSA level 20ng/mL or GS 8 or clinical/pathological stage T2c . Lymph-node positive and PSM have also been reported as poor prognosis factors.

Risk Group classification predicts biochemical and clinical progression as well as PCa specific mortality and overall survival. The risk of disease progression in these groups has been validated for patients submited to RP in many studies. In patients from Mayo Clinic, BCR rates were 2.3 and 3.3-fold greater in high and intermediate-risk in comparison with low-risk patients, respectively. In those patients, mortality rates in high and intermediate-risk patients were greater than 11 and 6-fold over low-risk men .

Therefore, it is crutial to understand the role of each clinical and pathologic feature in PCa BCR and disease progression.

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Use In Everyday Medical Care

Current guidelines from leading medical organizations don’t recommend routine use of the Decipher test. But the new study results should prompt these organizations to reconsider such guidelines on the basis of the strength of the evidence, Dr. McGuire wrote. The tests use in everyday medical practice should become commonplace, he added.

The question of whether hormone therapy should be added to radiation for patients with rising PSA after surgery is a question I see all the time in my practice, Dr. Feng said. My patients very much want to know if hormone therapy has a good chance of benefiting them. Tests like this are important because, if we can provide more information to patients and physicians, they can make better choices together.

There are still many questions about how to use the Decipher test in different groups of patients with prostate cancer, Dr. McGuire wrote. About 20 ongoing clinical studies are looking to provide some answers.

One area that needs further study is how well the test works in people of color, Dr. Feng noted. Recent evidence has shown that genetic-based tests can be less useful for people of color if there was a lack of diversity among participants in the studies that were done to develop and validate the test.

How Will I Know That The Treatment Has Been Successful

As with any other prostate cancer treatment option, the postoperative PSA blood test will be the primary indicator of a successful treatment. We will obtain a PSA level three months after the procedure, and then every six months for five years. After five years PSA monitoring is generally done annually. We expect to see the PSA come down to a level well below 0.5 ng/dl and remain at the lowest level achieved. Three successive rises in the PSA after reaching the lowest point would raise concern about residual or recurrent prostate cancer.

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When Hormone Therapy Is Recommended

Hormone therapy is typically given to patients with intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer. It may be used in the following ways:

  • In combination with radiation, mostly for patients with high Gleason scores or other high-risk factors.
  • After radiation or surgery when PSA rises, indicating a recurrence.
  • As therapy for patients unsuitable for radiation or surgery.
  • As therapy for metastatic prostate cancer . It may be given instead of or in combination with chemotherapy.

HT is usually not prescribed for:

  • Patients choosing a localized treatment for low-risk prostate cancer
  • Low-risk patients preferring to monitor their cancer on an active surveillance program

HT may be an option for patients who are not candidates for surgery, radiation or other localized treatment because of age, pre-existing health conditions or concerns about potential side effects of localized treatments.

What Are Next Steps

HORMONAL THERAPY FOR PROSTATE CANCER: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ...

Bone metastasis have a profound effect on the long-term outlook for prostate cancer. But its important to remember that the numbers are only statistics.

The good news is that life expectancy for advanced prostate cancer continues to increase. New treatments and therapies offer both longer life and better quality of life. Speak to your doctor about your treatment options and long-term outlook.

Everyones cancer experience is different. You may find support through sharing your treatment plan with friends and family. Or you can turn to local community groups or online forums like Male Care for advice and reassurance.

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Prostate Cancer Survival Rates

The good news about prostate cancer is that it usually grows slowly, and 9 out of 10 cases are found in the early stages. Overall, the 5-year relative survival rate is 100% for men with disease confined to the prostate or nearby tissues. Many men live much longer. When the disease has spread to distant areas, that figure drops to 31%. But these numbers are based on men diagnosed at least 5 years ago. The outlook may be better for men diagnosed and treated today.

Hormone Therapy For Prostate Cancer

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Hormone therapy is also called androgen suppression therapy. The goal of this treatment is to reduce levels of male hormones, called androgens, in the body, or to stop them from fueling prostate cancer cell growth.

Androgens stimulate prostate cancer cells to grow. The main androgens in the body are testosterone and dihydrotestosterone . Most androgens are made by the testicles, but the adrenal glands as well as the prostate cancer cells themselves, can also make androgens.

Lowering androgen levels or stopping them from getting into prostate cancer cells often makes prostate cancers shrink or grow more slowly for a time. But hormone therapy alone does not cure prostate cancer.

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Heres What You Should Know About This Treatment Option

Men who get diagnosed with prostate cancer have several options to choose from for their next step. Many men with slow-growing, low-risk cancer follow active surveillance, a wait-and-see approach that monitors the cancer for changes.

But if the cancer shows higher risk or has already begun to spread, other treatments are recommended. There are two options: surgery to remove the prostate or radiation to destroy the cancer cells.

Studies comparing these two approaches demonstrate no advantage of one over the other with respect to cancer control. Your path will depend on factors like your current health, the specifics of your cancer, and personal preference. Yet for many men, radiation can be the better option.

Its much more precise than the traditional radiation used for other kinds of cancer, and research also has found that long-term quality of life is often better, with fewer adverse health effects compared to surgery, says Dr. Anthony DAmico, a radiation oncologist with Harvard-affiliated Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Womens Hospital.

There are two main ways to deliver radiation to the prostate: external beam radiation and brachytherapy.

How Does Hormone Therapy Work Against Prostate Cancer

Intermittent Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer 101 | Ask a Prostate Expert, Mark Scholz, MD

Early in their development, prostate cancers need androgens to grow. Hormone therapies, which are treatments that decrease androgen levels or block androgen action, can inhibit the growth of such prostate cancers, which are therefore called castration sensitive, androgen dependent, or androgen sensitive.

Most prostate cancers eventually stop responding to hormone therapy and become castration resistant. That is, they continue to grow even when androgen levels in the body are extremely low or undetectable. In the past, these tumors were also called hormone resistant, androgen independent, or hormone refractory however, these terms are rarely used now because the tumors are not truly independent of androgens for their growth. In fact, some newer hormone therapies have become available that can be used to treat tumors that have become castration resistant.

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What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Hormone Therapy

What may be important to one person might be less important to someone else. So speak to your doctor or nurse about your own situation.

  • Its an effective way to control prostate cancer, even if it has spread to other parts of your body.
  • It can be used alongside other treatments to make them more effective.
  • It can help to reduce some of the symptoms of advanced prostate cancer, such as urinary symptoms and bone pain.
  • It can cause side effects that might have a big impact on your daily life.
  • It cant cure your cancer when its used by itself, but it can help to keep the cancer under control, sometimes for many years.

Drugs That Stop Androgens From Working

Anti-androgens

For most prostate cancer cells to grow, androgens have to attach to a protein in the prostate cancer cell called an androgen receptor. Anti-androgens are drugs that also connect to these receptors, keeping the androgens from causing tumor growth. Anti-androgens are also sometimes called androgen receptor antagonists.

Drugs of this type include:

They are taken daily as pills.

In the United States, anti-androgens are not often used by themselves:

  • An anti-androgen may be added to treatment if orchiectomy or an LHRH agonist or antagonist is no longer working by itself.
  • An anti-androgen is also sometimes given for a few weeks when an LHRH agonist is first started. This can help prevent a tumor flare.
  • An anti-androgen can also be combined with orchiectomy or an LHRH agonist as first-line hormone therapy. This is called combined androgen blockade . There is still some debate as to whether CAB is more effective in this setting than using orchiectomy or an LHRH agonist alone. If there is a benefit, it appears to be small.
  • In some men, if an anti-androgen is no longer working, simply stopping the anti-androgen can cause the cancer to stop growing for a short time. This is called the anti-androgen withdrawal effect, although it is not clear why it happens.

Newer anti-androgens

Enzalutamide , apalutamide and darolutamide are newer types of anti-androgens. They can sometimes be helpful even when older anti-androgens are not.

These drugs are taken as pills each day.

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