What Conditions And Disorders Affect The Thyroid
There are several different types of thyroid disease. Thyroid disease is very common, with an estimated 20 million people in the United States having some type of thyroid disorder. Women and people assigned female at birth are about five to eight times more likely to be diagnosed with a thyroid condition than men and people assigned male at birth .
Thyroid diseases are split into two types: primary and secondary.
In primary thyroid disease, the disease originates in your thyroid gland. In secondary thyroid disease, the disease originates in your pituitary gland. As an example, if you have a nodule on your thyroid thats releasing excess amounts of thyroid hormones, it would be called primary hyperthyroidism. If a tumor in your pituitary gland is releasing excess amounts of thyroid-stimulating hormone , which then stimulates your thyroid to produce excess thyroid hormones, it would be called secondary hyperthyroidism.
The four main conditions that affect your thyroid include:
- Postpartum thyroiditis .
- Excess iodine in your blood from diet and/or medication.
- Over-treatment of hypothyroidism through medication.
- A benign tumor in your pituitary gland.
Goiter is an enlargement of your thyroid gland. Goiters are relatively common they affect approximately 5% of people in the United States
Goiters have different causes, depending on their type.
Thyroid cancer is classified based on the type of cells from which cancer grows. Thyroid cancer types include:
Why Is This Analysis Important
As the thyroid hormone has a number of actions throughout the body, individuals may have a wide range of symptoms.
Symptoms of an overactive thyroid include:
Unusually fast heart rate
Involuntary weight loss – often despite an increased appetite
Low bone density
Irregular periods or heavy periods
Swollen thyroid gland
Some of the symptoms of hypo- or hyperthyroidism can be similar to menopausal symptoms and in some cases incorrectly attributed to menopause or simply stress. Individuals may want to get tested if they wish to determine whether their symptoms are a consequence of an underlying thyroid problem. Tests are also routinely done to monitor treatment of thyroid disease.
What Are The Early Warning Signs And Symptoms Of Thyroid Problems
Different thyroid conditions have different symptoms. However, since your thyroid has a large role in certain body systems and processes, such as heart rate, metabolism and temperature control, there are certain symptoms to look out for that could be a sign of a thyroid condition, including:
- Slow or rapid heart rate.
- Unexplained weight loss or weight gain.
- Difficulty tolerating cold or heat.
- Depression or anxiety.
- Irregular menstrual periods.
If youre experiencing any of these symptoms, talk to your healthcare provider about getting a blood test to check your thyroid function.
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Gene And Protein Expression
About 20,000 protein coding genes are expressed in human cells: 70% of these genes are expressed in thyroid cells. Two-hundred fifty of these genes are more specifically expressed in the thyroid, and about 20 genes are highly thyroid specific. In the follicular cells, the proteins synthesized by these genes direct thyroid hormone synthesisthyroglobulin, TPO, and IYD while in the parafollicular c-cells, they direct calcitonin synthesisCALCA, and CALCB.
Pregnant And Breastfeeding Women
The American Thyroid Association recommends that all pregnant and breastfeeding women in the United States and Canada take a prenatal vitamin containing 150 mcg of iodine a day as part of an overall recommended intake of 220 mcg/day and 290 mg/day, respectively. Excess iodine, however, can be particularly dangerous in these women.
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How Big Is The Thyroid
Your thyroid is about 2 inches long. A healthy thyroid usually does not stick out from your throat and you cant see it by looking at your neck.
However, certain conditions can cause your thyroid to become enlarged. This is known as goiter. If you have a goiter, you may experience the following symptoms:
- Swelling in the front of your neck, just below the Adam’s apple.
- A feeling of tightness in your throat area.
- A change in your voice, such as hoarseness .
What Makes Your Thyroid Levels High
Normally, your thyroid releases the right amount of hormones, but sometimes it produces too much T4. This may occur for a number of reasons, including: Graves’ disease. Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies produced by your immune system stimulate your thyroid to produce too much T4.
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What Medical Conditions Are Related To The Thyroid Gland
Almost 1 in 6 Australians has a thyroid problem. The chance of having trouble with your thyroid becomes greater as you get older.
Sometimes people have problems with their thyroid being overactive and producing too much thyroxine . It can be caused by an autoimmune disorder causing inflammation of the thyroid gland, Graves disease, or nodules on the thyroid. Hyperthyroidism makes the body use energy too quickly. Symptoms of hyperthyroidism include:
What Are Typical Symptoms Of Hyper
Typical symptoms for hyperthyroidism is weight loss, fast heart rate, high irritability/nervousness, muscle weakness and tremors, infrequent menstrual periods, sleep problems, eye irritations and heat sensitivity.
Symptoms for hypothyroidism is the contrary of hyperthyroidism such as weight gain, slower heart rate, fatigue, more frequent and stronger menstrual periods, forgetfulness, dry skin and hair, hoarse voice and intolerance to cold. In addition, hypothyroidism is often accompanied by an enlargement of the thyroid gland known as goitre.
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What Is Thyroid Hormone
Thyroid hormone is the hormone thats mainly responsible for controlling the speed of your bodys metabolism. In infants, thyroid hormone is critical for brain development. Your thyroid, a small, butterfly-shaped gland located at the front of your neck under your skin, makes and releases thyroid hormone. Its a part of your endocrine system.
Hormones are chemicals that coordinate different functions in your body by carrying messages through your blood to your organs, muscles and other tissues. These signals tell your body what to do and when to do it.
Metabolism is the complex process of how your body transforms the food you consume into energy. All of the cells in your body need energy to function.
Thyroid hormone actually represents the combination of the two main hormones that your thyroid gland releases: thyroxine and triiodothyronine . Theyre often collectively referred to as thyroid hormone because T4 is largely inactive, meaning it doesnt impact your cells, whereas T3 is active. Once your thyroid releases T4, certain organs in your body transform it into T3 so that it can impact your cells and your metabolism.
Your thyroid also releases a hormone called calcitonin to help regulate calcium levels in your blood by decreasing it. Calcitonin isnt grouped into the thyroid hormone name, and it doesnt impact your bodys metabolism like T3 and T4 do.
What Other Organs And Glands Interact With The Thyroid
Your endocrine system is an elaborate network of glands and hormones. Many glands and hormones rely on other glands and hormones to send them signals to start working. In addition, certain hormones can suppress other hormones.
Your body has a complex system for controlling the level of thyroid hormones in your body. First, your hypothalamus secretes thyroid-releasing hormone , which stimulates a part of your pituitary gland to secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone . TSH then stimulates your thyroid follicular cells to release thyroxine and triiodothyronine if there are adequate levels of iodine in your body.
Your thyroid gland and its hormones affect almost every organ system of your body, including:
- Your cardiovascular system: Your thyroid helps regulate the amount of blood your heart pumps through your circulatory system , heart rate and strength and vigor of your heart’s contraction .
- Your nervous system: When your thyroid isnt working properly, it can cause symptoms that affect your nervous system, including numbness, tingling, pain or a sense of burning in the affected parts of your body. In addition, hypothyroidism can cause depression and hyperthyroidism can cause anxiety.
- Your digestive system: Your thyroid is involved with how food moves through your digestive system .
- Your reproductive system: If your thyroid isnt working properly, it can cause irregular menstrual periods and issues with fertility.
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What Are Thyroid Hormones
The thyroid affects practically all cells in the body, and has a key role in metabolism, growth, body temperature, sleep and fertility. When the thyroid is not functioning correctly, symptoms can be vague and a blood test can be an easy way of identifying a problem. For instance symptoms of weight gain, fatigue, low mood and feeling cold, can be due to an underactive thyroid – the commonest thyroid disorder, especially in women.
Located at the front of the neck, the butterfly-shaped thyroid gland produces hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine . Normally, the thyroid gland produces 80% T4 and 20% T3. The secretion of T4 and T3 is regulated by thyroid stimulating hormone , which is produced by the pituitary gland in our brain. These hormones are connected through what is called a feedback loop: high levels of T3 and T4 will reduce the amount of TSH present in the blood, and conversely if there are high levels of TSH, the secretion of T3 and T4 will be lower.
A thyroid profile may include:
Adrenal Hormones & Your Thyroid
The adrenal/thyroid axis is one of the most important hormone conversations in your body. These are two vital players. They are literally the life of the party. Just as I mentioned that you cant live without your thyroid, you also cant live without your adrenal glands. The adrenals produce vital hormones including cortisol, DHEA, aldosterone, adrenaline , and even sex hormones. These stress hormones regulate your response to internal and external stressors, any kind of stimulus big or small, and this keeps you alive and functioning. Adrenal hormones stimulate the thyroid gland, and thyroid hormones stimulate and regulate the adrenal glands. Working to keep both of them optimized is the key to help each of them.
General Effects of Adrenal Hormones on Thyroid Function
Cortisol and Epinephrine/norepinephrine increases Reverse T3 : Cortisol and adrenaline are the main stress hormones. When under stress, these adrenal hormones increase and begin to influence the conversion of T4 into active T3 and instead convert T4 to inactive rT3. If inactive rT3 levels are high, then the metabolism lowers and symptoms of hypothyroidism ensue.
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What Are The Risk Factors For Developing A Thyroid Condition
Thyroid conditions are common and can affect anyone at any age. However, some factors put you at a higher risk of developing a thyroid condition, including:
- Having a family history of thyroid disease.
- Having an autoimmune condition, such as Type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.
- Taking a medication thats high in iodine.
Being older than 60, especially if youre a woman or a person who was assigned female at birth .
How Long Does Thyroid Hormone Stay In Your Body
You may be wondering how long thyroid hormone stays in the body after a thyroidectomy. Such a procedure almost always leads to a reduction in the amount of thyroid hormone that the body produces, but it typically takes up to two months before lingering thyroid hormone leaves the body after the procedure, according to the Cleveland Clinic.
Where does the hormone T3 come from in the body?
T3 is the active thyroid hormone, while rT3 is completely inactive. Only about 20 percent of the T3 in your body, about 30 to 40 mcg per day, is produced by the thyroid gland. The other 80 percent is produced from T4 within the tissues, particularly by your kidneys, liver, muscle, brain, skin, and, when applicable, the placenta.
How many grams does the thyroid gland weigh?
The thyroid weighs between 20 and 60 grams on average. It is surrounded by two fibrous capsules. The outer capsule is connected to the voice box muscles and many important vessels and nerves.
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What Is The Endocrine System
Your endocrine system is a network of several glands that create and secrete hormones.
A gland is an organ that makes one or more substances, such as hormones, digestive juices, sweat or tears. Endocrine glands release hormones directly into the bloodstream.
Hormones are chemicals that coordinate different functions in your body by carrying messages through your blood to your organs, skin, muscles and other tissues. These signals tell your body what to do and when to do it.
The following organs and glands make up your endocrine system:
What Causes Thyroid Disease
There are various different factors causing hyper- and hypothyroidism.
The following conditions cause hypothyroidism:
Thyroiditis is an inflammation of the thyroid gland. This can lower the number of hormones produced.
A special form of thyroiditis is Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. This is a genetic disorder caused by diseases of the immune system and can be passed from one generation to the other. In addition, thyroiditis can occur in women after giving birth also referred to as postpartum thyroiditis. It is usually a temporary condition and occurs only in 5-9% of woman giving birth.
Nutrition also impacts your thyroid functions. Iodine deficiency can cause hypothyroidism. This is a worldwide problem affecting approximately 100 million people. As mentioned earlier, iodine is used by the thyroid gland to produce hormones.
The following conditions cause hyperthyroidism:
Graves’ disease is a condition where the entire thyroid gland might be overactive and produce too much hormone. Your thyroid gland might be enlarged. This problem is also called diffuse toxic goitre.
Thyroiditis can also cause the opposite and trigger the release of hormones that were stored in the thyroid gland. This uncontrolled release of thyroid hormones causes hyperthyroidism for a few weeks or months. It may occur in women after childbirth.
What Conditions Are Related To Abnormal Thyroid Hormone Levels
Several conditions can result from or cause abnormal thyroid hormone levels. Thyroid disease is very common, with an estimated 20 million people in the United States having some type of thyroid condition. A person assigned female at birth is about five to eight times more likely to have a thyroid condition than a person assigned male at birth.
Thyroid conditions include:
- Thyroid cancer.
Issues with your pituitary gland or hypothalamus can also cause abnormal thyroid hormone levels since they help control thyroid hormone levels.
What Does The Thyroid Releasing Hormone Do
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone is the master regulator of thyroid gland growth and function . These hormones control the bodys metabolic rate, heat generation, neuromuscular function and heart rate, among other things.
What is the thyroid responsible for?
The thyroid gland is a vital hormone gland: It plays a major role in the metabolism, growth and development of the human body. It helps to regulate many body functions by constantly releasing a steady amount of thyroid hormones into the bloodstream.
What hormone control the thyroid gland?
Thyroxine, also known as T4, is the primary hormone secreted by the thyroid gland this hormone helps control our metabolism, a chemical process that turns our food into energy. A lack of iodine in your food can cause the thyroid to swell, a condition called a goiter.
What are effects that thyroid hormones have on the body?
It is likely that all cells in the body are targets for thyroid hormones.
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Sex Hormones & Your Thyroid
These two are always chatting. The main sex hormones of estrogen, testosterone, and progesterone are being influenced by the thyroid, and the thyroid is influenced by them as well. One system is strengthening the other. As men and women age, and sex hormones start to decline, the thyroid has to attempt to pick up the slack. And depending on the nutritional state of the thyroid and other environmental factors, the thyroid may blow a gasket, not being able to keep up. In fact, this is a typical outcome for women when they first enter menopause thyroid dysfunction often coincides with that transition.
Sex Hormones Affecting Thyroid Function
Here is a summary of some of the various effects of sex hormones on Thyroid Binding Globulin , a protein that binds and potentially minimizes the activity of thyroid hormone.
General Effects of Sex Hormones on Thyroid Function
- Estradiol lowers TSH: When women first enter perimenopause and eventually menopause, which is accompanied by lowered estrogen, it is very common to see hypothyroidism develop, which will usually be marked by an elevation in TSH . Restoring the estrogen levels will help to lower TSH, partially relieving the low thyroid state. But there is more to it
- Estradiol increases T4 and T3: Estrogen is also directly stimulating the thyroid gland to produce more thyroid hormone, which will also contribute to lowering TSH.
Thyroid Function Affecting Sex Hormone Function
Overview Of The Thyroid Gland
The thyroid is a small gland, measuring about 2 inches across, that lies just under the skin below the Adams apple in the neck. The two halves of the gland are connected in the middle , giving the thyroid gland the shape of a bow tie. Normally, the thyroid gland cannot be seen and can barely be felt. If it becomes enlarged, doctors can feel it easily, and a prominent bulge may appear below or to the sides of the Adams apple.
The thyroid gland secretes thyroid hormones, which control the speed at which the bodys chemical functions proceed . Thyroid hormones influence the metabolic rate in two ways:
Thyroid hormones affect many vital body functions, such as the heart rate, the rate at which calories are burned, skin maintenance, growth, heat production, fertility, and digestion.
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